VER market activity is gently improving as the holiday season has receded. The clamour for US CAR CRTs and more recently, African VCUs is helping to grow demand. As end-users increasingly specify African-originated credits, bids are being given at unusually early stages i.e. at validation due to the demand/supply imbalance. Exotic recent-vintage RE offsets are trading at around $4/5, bid/offered with standard India and China RE offsets at $3/3.50, bid/offered.